Drake

A superclass template for systems that receive input, maintain state, and produce output of a given mathematical type T. More...
#include <drake/systems/framework/input_port_descriptor.h>
Public Member Functions  
virtual  ~System () 
void  GetWitnessFunctions (const Context< T > &context, std::vector< const WitnessFunction< T > * > *w) const 
Gets the witness functions active at the beginning of a continuous time interval. More...  
T  EvaluateWitness (const Context< T > &context, const WitnessFunction< T > &witness_func) const 
Evaluates a witness function at the given context. More...  
virtual void  AddTriggeredWitnessFunctionToCompositeEventCollection (const WitnessFunction< T > &witness_func, CompositeEventCollection< T > *events) const =0 
Add witness_func to events . More...  
std::string  GetSystemIdString () const 
Returns a string suitable for identifying this particular System in error messages, when it is a subsystem of a larger Diagram. More...  
Does not allow copy, move, or assignment  
System (const System &)=delete  
System &  operator= (const System &)=delete 
System (System &&)=delete  
System &  operator= (System &&)=delete 
Resource allocation and initialization  
These methods are used to allocate and initialize Context resources.  
virtual std::unique_ptr< Context< T > >  AllocateContext () const =0 
Allocates a context, initialized with the correct numbers of concrete input ports and state variables for this System. More...  
virtual std::unique_ptr< CompositeEventCollection< T > >  AllocateCompositeEventCollection () const =0 
Allocates a CompositeEventCollection for this system. More...  
std::unique_ptr< BasicVector< T > >  AllocateInputVector (const InputPortDescriptor< T > &descriptor) const 
Given a port descriptor, allocates the vector storage. More...  
std::unique_ptr< AbstractValue >  AllocateInputAbstract (const InputPortDescriptor< T > &descriptor) const 
Given a port descriptor, allocates the abstract storage. More...  
virtual std::unique_ptr< SystemOutput< T > >  AllocateOutput (const Context< T > &context) const =0 
Returns a container that can hold the values of all of this System's output ports. More...  
virtual std::unique_ptr< ContinuousState< T > >  AllocateTimeDerivatives () const 
Returns a ContinuousState of the same size as the continuous_state allocated in CreateDefaultContext. More...  
virtual std::unique_ptr< DiscreteValues< T > >  AllocateDiscreteVariables () const 
Returns a DiscreteState of the same dimensions as the discrete_state allocated in CreateDefaultContext. More...  
std::unique_ptr< Context< T > >  CreateDefaultContext () const 
This convenience method allocates a context using AllocateContext() and sets its default values using SetDefaults(). More...  
virtual void  SetDefaultState (const Context< T > &context, State< T > *state) const =0 
Assigns default values to all elements of the state. More...  
virtual void  SetDefaults (Context< T > *context) const =0 
void  AllocateFreestandingInputs (Context< T > *context) const 
For each input port, allocates a freestanding input of the concrete type that this System requires, and binds it to the port, disconnecting any prior input. More...  
virtual std::multimap< int, int >  GetDirectFeedthroughs () const =0 
Reports all direct feedthroughs from input ports to output ports. More...  
bool  HasAnyDirectFeedthrough () const 
Returns true if any of the inputs to the system might be directly fed through to any of its outputs and false otherwise. More...  
bool  HasDirectFeedthrough (int output_port) const 
Returns true if there might be directfeedthrough from any input port to the given output_port , and false otherwise. More...  
bool  HasDirectFeedthrough (int input_port, int output_port) const 
Returns true if there might be directfeedthrough from the given input_port to the given output_port , and false otherwise. More...  
Publishing  
Publishing is the primary mechanism for a System to communicate with the world outside the System abstraction during a simulation. Publishing occurs at userspecified times or events and can generate sideeffect results such as terminal output, visualization, logging, plotting, and network messages. Other than computational cost, publishing has no effect on the progress of a simulation.  
void  Publish (const Context< T > &context, const EventCollection< PublishEvent< T >> &events) const 
This method is the public entry point for dispatching all publish event handlers. More...  
void  Publish (const Context< T > &context) const 
Forces a publish on the system, given a context . More...  
Cached evaluations  
Given the values in a Context, a Drake System must be able to provide the results of particular computations needed for analysis and simulation of the System. These results are maintained in a mutable cache within the Context so that a result need be computed only once, the first time it is requested after a change to one of its prerequisite values. The  
const T &  EvalConservativePower (const Context< T > &context) const 
Returns a reference to the cached value of the conservative power. More...  
const T &  EvalNonConservativePower (const Context< T > &context) const 
Returns a reference to the cached value of the nonconservative power. More...  
template<template< typename > class Vec = BasicVector>  
const Vec< T > *  EvalVectorInput (const Context< T > &context, int port_index) const 
Causes the vectorvalued input port with the given port_index to become uptodate, delegating to our parent Diagram if necessary. More...  
Eigen::VectorBlock< const VectorX< T > >  EvalEigenVectorInput (const Context< T > &context, int port_index) const 
Causes the vectorvalued input port with the given port_index to become uptodate, delegating to our parent Diagram if necessary. More...  
const AbstractValue *  EvalAbstractInput (const Context< T > &context, int port_index) const 
Causes the abstractvalued input port with the given port_index to become uptodate, delegating to our parent Diagram if necessary. More...  
template<typename V >  
const V *  EvalInputValue (const Context< T > &context, int port_index) const 
Causes the abstractvalued input port with the given port_index to become uptodate, delegating to our parent Diagram if necessary. More...  
Constraintrelated functions.  
int  get_num_constraint_equations (const Context< T > &context) const 
Gets the number of constraint equations for this system using the given context (useful in case the number of constraints is dependent upon the current state (as might be the case with a system modeled using piecewise differential algebraic equations). More...  
Eigen::VectorXd  EvalConstraintEquations (const Context< T > &context) const 
Evaluates the constraint equations for the system at the generalized coordinates and generalized velocity specified by the context. More...  
Eigen::VectorXd  EvalConstraintEquationsDot (const Context< T > &context) const 
Computes the time derivative of each constraint equation, evaluated at the generalized coordinates and generalized velocity specified by the context. More...  
Eigen::VectorXd  CalcVelocityChangeFromConstraintImpulses (const Context< T > &context, const Eigen::MatrixXd &J, const Eigen::VectorXd &lambda) const 
Computes the change in velocity from applying the given constraint forces to the system at the given context. More...  
double  CalcConstraintErrorNorm (const Context< T > &context, const Eigen::VectorXd &error) const 
Computes the norm on constraint error (used as a metric for comparing errors between the outputs of algebraic equations applied to two different state variable instances). More...  
Calculations  
A Drake System defines a set of common computations that are understood by the framework. Most of these are embodied in a This group also includes additional Systemspecific operations that depend on both Context and additional input arguments.  
void  CalcTimeDerivatives (const Context< T > &context, ContinuousState< T > *derivatives) const 
Calculates the time derivatives xcdot of the continuous state xc . More...  
void  CalcDiscreteVariableUpdates (const Context< T > &context, const EventCollection< DiscreteUpdateEvent< T >> &events, DiscreteValues< T > *discrete_state) const 
This method is the public entry point for dispatching all discrete variable update event handlers. More...  
void  CalcDiscreteVariableUpdates (const Context< T > &context, DiscreteValues< T > *discrete_state) const 
This method forces a discrete update on the system given a context , and the updated discrete state is stored in discrete_state . More...  
void  CalcUnrestrictedUpdate (const Context< T > &context, const EventCollection< UnrestrictedUpdateEvent< T >> &events, State< T > *state) const 
This method is the public entry point for dispatching all unrestricted update event handlers. More...  
void  CalcUnrestrictedUpdate (const Context< T > &context, State< T > *state) const 
This method forces an unrestricted update on the system given a context , and the updated state is stored in discrete_state . More...  
T  CalcNextUpdateTime (const Context< T > &context, CompositeEventCollection< T > *events) const 
This method is called by a Simulator during its calculation of the size of the next continuous step to attempt. More...  
void  GetPerStepEvents (const Context< T > &context, CompositeEventCollection< T > *events) const 
This method is called by Simulator::Initialize() to gather all update and publish events that are to be handled in StepTo() at the point before Simulator integrates continuous state. More...  
void  CalcOutput (const Context< T > &context, SystemOutput< T > *outputs) const 
Utility method that computes for every output port i the value y(i) that should result from the current contents of the given Context. More...  
T  CalcPotentialEnergy (const Context< T > &context) const 
Calculates and returns the potential energy current stored in the configuration provided in context . More...  
T  CalcKineticEnergy (const Context< T > &context) const 
Calculates and returns the kinetic energy currently present in the motion provided in the given Context. More...  
T  CalcConservativePower (const Context< T > &context) const 
Calculates and returns the rate at which mechanical energy is being converted from potential energy to kinetic energy by this system in the given Context. More...  
T  CalcNonConservativePower (const Context< T > &context) const 
Calculates and returns the rate at which mechanical energy is being generated (positive) or dissipated (negative) other than by conversion between potential and kinetic energy (in the given Context). More...  
void  MapVelocityToQDot (const Context< T > &context, const VectorBase< T > &generalized_velocity, VectorBase< T > *qdot) const 
Transforms a given generalized velocity v to the time derivative qdot of the generalized configuration q taken from the supplied Context. More...  
void  MapVelocityToQDot (const Context< T > &context, const Eigen::Ref< const VectorX< T >> &generalized_velocity, VectorBase< T > *qdot) const 
Transforms the given generalized velocity to the time derivative of generalized configuration. More...  
void  MapQDotToVelocity (const Context< T > &context, const VectorBase< T > &qdot, VectorBase< T > *generalized_velocity) const 
Transforms the time derivative qdot of the generalized configuration q to generalized velocities v . More...  
void  MapQDotToVelocity (const Context< T > &context, const Eigen::Ref< const VectorX< T >> &qdot, VectorBase< T > *generalized_velocity) const 
Transforms the given time derivative qdot of generalized configuration q to generalized velocity v . More...  
Utility methods  
void  set_name (const std::string &name) 
Sets the name of the system. More...  
std::string  get_name () const 
Returns the name last supplied to set_name(), or empty if set_name() was never called. More...  
std::string  GetMemoryObjectName () const 
Returns a name for this System based on a stringification of its type name and memory address. More...  
void  GetPath (std::stringstream *output) const 
Writes the full path of this System in the tree of Systems to output . More...  
std::string  GetPath () const 
int  get_num_input_ports () const 
Returns the number of input ports of the system. More...  
int  get_num_output_ports () const 
Returns the number of output ports of the system. More...  
const InputPortDescriptor< T > &  get_input_port (int port_index) const 
Returns the descriptor of the input port at index port_index . More...  
const OutputPort< T > &  get_output_port (int port_index) const 
Returns the output port at index port_index . More...  
int  get_num_constraints () const 
Returns the number of constraints specified for the system. More...  
const SystemConstraint< T > &  get_constraint (SystemConstraintIndex constraint_index) const 
Returns the constraint at index constraint_index . More...  
int  get_num_total_inputs () const 
Returns the total dimension of all of the input ports (as if they were muxed). More...  
int  get_num_total_outputs () const 
Returns the total dimension of all of the output ports (as if they were muxed). More...  
void  CheckValidOutput (const SystemOutput< T > *output) const 
Checks that output is consistent with the number and size of output ports declared by the system. More...  
template<typename T1 = T>  
void  CheckValidContext (const Context< T1 > &context) const 
Checks that context is consistent for this System template. More...  
VectorX< T >  CopyContinuousStateVector (const Context< T > &context) const 
Returns a copy of the continuous state vector xc into an Eigen vector. More...  
void  set_parent (const detail::InputPortEvaluatorInterface< T > *parent) 
Declares that parent is the immediately enclosing Diagram. More...  
Graphviz methods  
std::string  GetGraphvizString () const 
Returns a Graphviz string describing this System. More...  
virtual void  GetGraphvizFragment (std::stringstream *dot) const 
Appends a Graphviz fragment to the dot stream. More...  
virtual void  GetGraphvizInputPortToken (const InputPortDescriptor< T > &port, std::stringstream *dot) const 
Appends a fragment to the dot stream identifying the graphviz node representing port . More...  
virtual void  GetGraphvizOutputPortToken (const OutputPort< T > &port, std::stringstream *dot) const 
Appends a fragment to the dot stream identifying the graphviz node representing port . More...  
int64_t  GetGraphvizId () const 
Returns an opaque integer that uniquely identifies this system in the Graphviz output. More...  
Transmogrification utilities  
void  FixInputPortsFrom (const System< double > &other_system, const Context< double > &other_context, Context< T > *target_context) const 
Fixes all of the input ports in target_context to their current values in other_context , as evaluated by other_system . More...  
const SystemScalarConverter &  get_system_scalar_converter () const 
(Advanced) Returns the SystemScalarConverter for this object. More...  
Protected Member Functions  
virtual T  DoEvaluateWitness (const Context< T > &context, const WitnessFunction< T > &witness_func) const =0 
Derived classes will implement this method to evaluate a witness function at the given context. More...  
virtual void  DoGetWitnessFunctions (const Context< T > &, std::vector< const WitnessFunction< T > * > *) const 
Derived classes can override this method to provide witness functions active at the beginning of a continuous time interval. More...  
SystemConstraintIndex  AddConstraint (std::unique_ptr< SystemConstraint< T >> constraint) 
Adds an alreadycreated constraint to the list of constraints for this System. More...  
const EventCollection< PublishEvent< T > > &  get_forced_publish_events () const 
const EventCollection< DiscreteUpdateEvent< T > > &  get_forced_discrete_update_events () const 
const EventCollection< UnrestrictedUpdateEvent< T > > &  get_forced_unrestricted_update_events () const 
void  set_forced_publish_events (std::unique_ptr< EventCollection< PublishEvent< T >>> forced) 
void  set_forced_discrete_update_events (std::unique_ptr< EventCollection< DiscreteUpdateEvent< T >>> forced) 
void  set_forced_unrestricted_update_events (std::unique_ptr< EventCollection< UnrestrictedUpdateEvent< T >>> forced) 
Event handler dispatch mechanism  
For a LeafSystem (or user implemented equivalent classes), these functions need to call the appropriate LeafSystem::DoX event handler. E.g. LeafSystem::DispatchPublishHandler() calls LeafSystem::DoPublish(). User supplied custom event callbacks embedded in each individual event need to be further dispatched in the LeafSystem::DoX handlers if desired. For a LeafSystem, the pseudo code of the complete default publish event handler dispatching is roughly: leaf_sys.Publish(context, event_collection) > leaf_sys.DispatchPublishHandler(context, event_collection) > leaf_sys.DoPublish(context, event_collection.get_events()) > for (event : event_collection_events): if (event.has_handler) event.handler(context) Discrete update events and unrestricted update events are dispatched similarly for a LeafSystem. For a Diagram (or user implemented equivalent classes), these functions must iterate through all subsystems, extract their corresponding subcontext and subevent collections from All of these functions are only called from their corresponding public nonvirtual event dispatchers, where  
virtual void  DispatchPublishHandler (const Context< T > &context, const EventCollection< PublishEvent< T >> &events) const =0 
This function dispatches all publish events to the appropriate handlers. More...  
virtual void  DispatchDiscreteVariableUpdateHandler (const Context< T > &context, const EventCollection< DiscreteUpdateEvent< T >> &events, DiscreteValues< T > *discrete_state) const =0 
This function dispatches all discrete update events to the appropriate handlers. More...  
virtual void  DispatchUnrestrictedUpdateHandler (const Context< T > &context, const EventCollection< UnrestrictedUpdateEvent< T >> &events, State< T > *state) const =0 
This function dispatches all unrestricted update events to the appropriate handlers. More...  
System construction  
Authors of derived Systems can use these methods in the constructor for those Systems.  
System (SystemScalarConverter converter)  
Constructs an empty System base class object, possibly supporting scalartype conversion support (AutoDiff, etc.) using converter . More...  
const InputPortDescriptor< T > &  DeclareInputPort (PortDataType type, int size, optional< RandomDistribution > random_type=nullopt) 
Adds a port with the specified type and size to the input topology. More...  
const InputPortDescriptor< T > &  DeclareAbstractInputPort () 
Adds an abstractvalued port to the input topology. More...  
void  CreateOutputPort (std::unique_ptr< OutputPort< T >> port) 
Adds an alreadycreated output port to this System. More...  
Virtual methods for input allocation  
Authors of derived Systems should override these methods to selfdescribe acceptable inputs to the System.  
virtual BasicVector< T > *  DoAllocateInputVector (const InputPortDescriptor< T > &descriptor) const =0 
Allocates an input vector of the leaf type that the System requires on the port specified by descriptor . More...  
virtual AbstractValue *  DoAllocateInputAbstract (const InputPortDescriptor< T > &descriptor) const =0 
Allocates an abstract input of the leaf type that the System requires on the port specified by descriptor . More...  
Virtual methods for calculations  
These virtuals allow concrete systems to implement the calculations defined by the Most have default implementations that are usable for simple systems, but you are likely to need to override some or all of these in your concrete system to produce meaningful calculations. These methods are invoked by the corresponding method in the public interface that has the same name with  
virtual void  DoCalcTimeDerivatives (const Context< T > &context, ContinuousState< T > *derivatives) const 
Override this if you have any continuous state variables xc in your concrete System to calculate their time derivatives. More...  
virtual void  DoCalcNextUpdateTime (const Context< T > &context, CompositeEventCollection< T > *events, T *time) const 
Computes the next time at which this System must perform a discrete action. More...  
virtual void  DoGetPerStepEvents (const Context< T > &context, CompositeEventCollection< T > *events) const 
Implement this method to return any events to be handled before the simulator integrates the system's continuous state at each time step. More...  
virtual T  DoCalcPotentialEnergy (const Context< T > &context) const 
Override this method for physical systems to calculate the potential energy currently stored in the configuration provided in the given Context. More...  
virtual T  DoCalcKineticEnergy (const Context< T > &context) const 
Override this method for physical systems to calculate the kinetic energy currently present in the motion provided in the given Context. More...  
virtual T  DoCalcConservativePower (const Context< T > &context) const 
Override this method to return the rate at which mechanical energy is being converted from potential energy to kinetic energy by this system in the given Context. More...  
virtual T  DoCalcNonConservativePower (const Context< T > &context) const 
Override this method to return the rate at which mechanical energy is being generated (positive) or dissipated (negative) other than by conversion between potential and kinetic energy (in the given Context). More...  
virtual void  DoMapQDotToVelocity (const Context< T > &context, const Eigen::Ref< const VectorX< T >> &qdot, VectorBase< T > *generalized_velocity) const 
Provides the substantive implementation of MapQDotToVelocity(). More...  
virtual void  DoMapVelocityToQDot (const Context< T > &context, const Eigen::Ref< const VectorX< T >> &generalized_velocity, VectorBase< T > *qdot) const 
Provides the substantive implementation of MapVelocityToQDot(). More...  
virtual std::unique_ptr< System< AutoDiffXd > >  DoToAutoDiffXd () const 
NVI implementation of ToAutoDiffXdMaybe. More...  
virtual std::unique_ptr< System< symbolic::Expression > >  DoToSymbolic () const 
NVI implementation of ToSymbolicMaybe. More...  
Constraintrelated functions (protected).  
virtual int  do_get_num_constraint_equations (const Context< T > &context) const 
Gets the number of constraint equations for this system from the given context. More...  
virtual Eigen::VectorXd  DoEvalConstraintEquations (const Context< T > &context) const 
Evaluates the constraint equations for the system at the generalized coordinates and generalized velocity specified by the context. More...  
virtual Eigen::VectorXd  DoEvalConstraintEquationsDot (const Context< T > &context) const 
Computes the time derivative of each constraint equation, evaluated at the generalized coordinates and generalized velocity specified by the context. More...  
virtual Eigen::VectorXd  DoCalcVelocityChangeFromConstraintImpulses (const Context< T > &context, const Eigen::MatrixXd &J, const Eigen::VectorXd &lambda) const 
Computes the change in velocity from applying the given constraint forces to the system at the given context. More...  
virtual double  DoCalcConstraintErrorNorm (const Context< T > &context, const Eigen::VectorXd &error) const 
Computes the norm of the constraint error. More...  
Utility methods (protected)  
Eigen::VectorBlock< VectorX< T > >  GetMutableOutputVector (SystemOutput< T > *output, int port_index) const 
Returns a mutable Eigen expression for a vector valued output port with index port_index in this system. More...  
void  EvalInputPort (const Context< T > &context, int port_index) const 
Causes an InputPortValue in the context to become uptodate, delegating to the parent Diagram if necessary. More...  
Automatic differentiation  
From a System templatized by  
std::unique_ptr< System< AutoDiffXd > >  ToAutoDiffXd () const 
Creates a deep copy of this System, transmogrified to use the autodiff scalar type, with a dynamicsized vector of partial derivatives. More...  
std::unique_ptr< System< AutoDiffXd > >  ToAutoDiffXdMaybe () const 
Creates a deep copy of this system exactly like ToAutoDiffXd(), but returns nullptr if this System does not support autodiff, instead of throwing an exception. More...  
template<template< typename > class S = ::drake::systems::System>  
static std::unique_ptr< S< AutoDiffXd > >  ToAutoDiffXd (const S< T > &from) 
Creates a deep copy of from , transmogrified to use the autodiff scalar type, with a dynamicsized vector of partial derivatives. More...  
Symbolics  
From a System templatized by  
std::unique_ptr< System< symbolic::Expression > >  ToSymbolic () const 
Creates a deep copy of this System, transmogrified to use the symbolic scalar type. More...  
std::unique_ptr< System< symbolic::Expression > >  ToSymbolicMaybe () const 
Creates a deep copy of this system exactly like ToSymbolic(), but returns nullptr if this System does not support symbolic, instead of throwing an exception. More...  
template<template< typename > class S = ::drake::systems::System>  
static std::unique_ptr< S< symbolic::Expression > >  ToSymbolic (const S< T > &from) 
Creates a deep copy of from , transmogrified to use the symbolic scalar type. More...  
A superclass template for systems that receive input, maintain state, and produce output of a given mathematical type T.
T  The vector element type, which must be a valid Eigen scalar. 

inlinevirtual 

inlineexplicitprotected 
Constructs an empty System base class object, possibly supporting scalartype conversion support (AutoDiff, etc.) using converter
.
See System Scalar Conversion for detailed background and examples related to scalartype conversion support.

inlineprotected 
Adds an alreadycreated constraint to the list of constraints for this System.
Ownership of the SystemConstraint is transferred to this system.

pure virtual 
Add witness_func
to events
.
events
cannot be nullptr. events
should be allocated with this system's AllocateCompositeEventCollection. The system associated with witness_func
has to be either this
or a subsystem of this
depending on whether this
is a LeafSystem or a Diagram.
Implemented in Diagram< T >, Diagram< double >, LeafSystem< T >, and LeafSystem< double >.

pure virtual 
Allocates a CompositeEventCollection for this system.
The allocated instance is used for registering events; for example, Simulator passes this object to System::CalcNextUpdateTime() to allow the system to register upcoming events.
Implemented in Diagram< T >, Diagram< double >, LeafSystem< T >, and LeafSystem< double >.

pure virtual 
Allocates a context, initialized with the correct numbers of concrete input ports and state variables for this System.
Since input port pointers are not owned by the context, they should simply be initialized to nullptr.
Implemented in Diagram< T >, Diagram< double >, LeafSystem< T >, LeafSystem< double >, VectorSystem< T >, VectorSystem< double >, and SingleOutputVectorSource< T >.

inlinevirtual 
Returns a DiscreteState of the same dimensions as the discrete_state allocated in CreateDefaultContext.
The simulator will provide this state as the output argument to Update. By default, allocates nothing. Systems with discrete state variables should override.
Reimplemented in Diagram< T >, Diagram< double >, LeafSystem< T >, LeafSystem< double >, and MySpringMassSystem< T >.

inline 
For each input port, allocates a freestanding input of the concrete type that this System requires, and binds it to the port, disconnecting any prior input.
Does not assign any values to the freestanding inputs.

inline 
Given a port descriptor, allocates the abstract storage.
Subclasses with a abstract input ports must override the NVI implementation of this function, DoAllocateInputAbstract, to return an appropriate AbstractValue. The descriptor
must match a port declared via DeclareInputPort.

inline 
Given a port descriptor, allocates the vector storage.
The default implementation in this class allocates a BasicVector. Subclasses must override the NVI implementation of this function, DoAllocateInputVector, to return input vector types other than BasicVector. The descriptor
must match a port declared via DeclareInputPort.

pure virtual 
Returns a container that can hold the values of all of this System's output ports.
It is sized with the number of output ports and uses each output port's allocation method to provide an object of the right type for that port. A Context is provided as an argument to support some specialized use cases. Most typical System implementations should ignore it.
Implemented in Diagram< T >, Diagram< double >, LeafSystem< T >, and LeafSystem< double >.

inlinevirtual 
Returns a ContinuousState of the same size as the continuous_state allocated in CreateDefaultContext.
The simulator will provide this state as the output argument to EvalTimeDerivatives.
By default, allocates no derivatives. Systems with continuous state variables should override.
Reimplemented in Diagram< T >, Diagram< double >, LeafSystem< T >, and LeafSystem< double >.

inline 
Calculates and returns the rate at which mechanical energy is being converted from potential energy to kinetic energy by this system in the given Context.
This quantity will be positive when potential energy is decreasing. Note that kinetic energy will also be affected by nonconservative forces so we can't say whether it is increasing or decreasing in an absolute sense, only whether the conservative power is increasing or decreasing the kinetic energy. Power is in watts (J/s).Nonphysical Systems will return zero.

inline 
Computes the norm on constraint error (used as a metric for comparing errors between the outputs of algebraic equations applied to two different state variable instances).
This norm need be neither continuous nor differentiable.
std::logic_error  if the dimension of err is not equivalent to the output of get_num_constraint_equations(). 

inline 
This method is the public entry point for dispatching all discrete variable update event handlers.
Using all the discrete update handlers in events
, the method calculates the update xd(n+1)
to discrete variables xd(n)
in context
and outputs the results to discrete_state
. See documentation for DispatchDiscreteVariableUpdateHandler() for more details.

inline 
This method forces a discrete update on the system given a context
, and the updated discrete state is stored in discrete_state
.
The discrete update event will have a trigger type of kForced, with no attribute or custom callback.

inline 
Calculates and returns the kinetic energy currently present in the motion provided in the given Context.
Nonphysical Systems will return zero.

inline 
This method is called by a Simulator during its calculation of the size of the next continuous step to attempt.
The System returns the next time at which some discrete action must be taken, and records what those actions ought to be in events
. Upon reaching that time, the simulator will merge events
with the other CompositeEventCollection instances scheduled through mechanisms (e.g. GetPerStepEvents()), and the merged CompositeEventCollection will be passed to all event handling mechanisms.
events
cannot be null. events
will be cleared on entry.

inline 
Calculates and returns the rate at which mechanical energy is being generated (positive) or dissipated (negative) other than by conversion between potential and kinetic energy (in the given Context).
Integrating this quantity yields work W, and the total energy E=PE+KEW
should be conserved by any physicallycorrect model, to within integration accuracy of W. Power is in watts (J/s). (Watts are abbreviated W but not to be confused with work!) This method is meaningful only for physical systems; others return zero.

inline 
Utility method that computes for every output port i the value y(i) that should result from the current contents of the given Context.
Note that individual output port values can be calculated using get_output_port(i).Calc()
; this method invokes that for each output port in index order. The result may depend on time and the current values of input ports, parameters, and state variables. The result is written to outputs
which must already have been allocated to have the right number of entries of the right types.

inline 
Calculates and returns the potential energy current stored in the configuration provided in context
.
Nonphysical Systems will return zero.

inline 
Calculates the time derivatives xcdot
of the continuous state xc
.
The derivatives
vector will correspond elementwise with the continuous state in the given Context. Thus, if the state in the Context has secondorder structure xc=[q v z]
, that same structure applies to the derivatives so we will have xcdot=[qdot vdot zdot]
.
context  The Context whose time, input port, parameter, and state values are used to evaluate the derivatives. 
derivatives  The time derivatives xcdot . Must be the same size as the continuous state vector in context . 

inline 
This method is the public entry point for dispatching all unrestricted update event handlers.
Using all the unrestricted update handers in events
, it updates any state variables in the context
, and outputs the results to state
. It does not allow the dimensionality of the state variables to change. See the documentation for DispatchUnrestrictedUpdateHandler() for more details.
std::logic_error  if the dimensionality of the state variables changes in the callback. 
This method forces an unrestricted update on the system given a context
, and the updated state is stored in discrete_state
.
The unrestricted update event will have a trigger type of kForced, with no additional data, attribute or custom callback.

inline 
Computes the change in velocity from applying the given constraint forces to the system at the given context.
context  the current system state, provision of which also yields the ability of the constraints to be dependent upon the current system state (as might be the case with a piecewise differential algebraic equation). 
J  a m × n constraint Jacobian matrix of the m constraint equations g() differentiated with respect to the n configuration variables q (i.e., J should be ∂g/∂q ). If the time derivatives of the generalized coordinates of the system are not identical to the generalized velocity (in general they need not be, e.g., if generalized coordinates use unit unit quaternions to represent 3D orientation), J should instead be defined as ∂g/∂q⋅N , where N ≡ ∂q/∂ꝗ is the Jacobian matrix (dependent on q ) of the generalized coordinates with respect to the quasicoordinates (ꝗ, pronounced "qbar", where dꝗ/dt are the generalized velocities). 
lambda  the vector of constraint forces (of same dimension as the number of rows in the Jacobian matrix, J ) 
n
dimensional vector, where n
is the dimension of the quasicoordinates.

inline 

inline 
Checks that output
is consistent with the number and size of output ports declared by the system.
exception  unless output is nonnull and valid for this system. 
Returns a copy of the continuous state vector xc
into an Eigen vector.

inline 
This convenience method allocates a context using AllocateContext() and sets its default values using SetDefaults().

inlineprotected 

inlineprotected 
Adds an abstractvalued port to the input topology.

inlineprotected 
Adds a port with the specified type
and size
to the input topology.
If the port is intended to model a random noise or disturbance input, random_type
can (optionally) be used to label it as such; doing so enables algorithms for design and analysis (e.g. state estimation) to reason explicitly about randomness at the system level. All random input ports are assumed to be statistically independent.

protectedpure virtual 
This function dispatches all discrete update events to the appropriate handlers.
discrete_state
cannot be null.

protectedpure virtual 
This function dispatches all publish events to the appropriate handlers.

protectedpure virtual 
This function dispatches all unrestricted update events to the appropriate handlers.
state
cannot be null.

inlineprotectedvirtual 
Gets the number of constraint equations for this system from the given context.
The context is supplied in case the number of constraints is dependent upon the current state (as might be the case with a piecewise differential algebraic equation). Derived classes can override this function, which is called by get_num_constraint_equations().

protectedpure virtual 
Allocates an abstract input of the leaf type that the System requires on the port specified by descriptor
.
Caller owns the returned memory.
Implemented in Diagram< T >, Diagram< double >, LeafSystem< T >, and LeafSystem< double >.

protectedpure virtual 
Allocates an input vector of the leaf type that the System requires on the port specified by descriptor
.
Caller owns the returned memory.
Implemented in Diagram< T >, Diagram< double >, LeafSystem< T >, and LeafSystem< double >.

inlineprotectedvirtual 
Override this method to return the rate at which mechanical energy is being converted from potential energy to kinetic energy by this system in the given Context.
This quantity must be positive when potential energy is decreasing. Power is in watts (J/s).
By default, returns zero. Continuous, physical systems should override. You may assume that context
has already been validated before it is passed to you here.
Reimplemented in RigidBodyPlant< T >, RigidBodyPlant< double >, and SpringMassSystem< T >.

inlineprotectedvirtual 
Computes the norm of the constraint error.
This default implementation computes a Euclidean norm of the error. Derived classes can override this function, which is called by CalcConstraintErrorNorm(). This norm need be neither continuous nor differentiable.

inlineprotectedvirtual 
Override this method for physical systems to calculate the kinetic energy currently present in the motion provided in the given Context.
The default implementation returns 0 which is correct for nonphysical systems. You may assume that context
has already been validated before it is passed to you here.
Reimplemented in RigidBodyPlant< T >, RigidBodyPlant< double >, and SpringMassSystem< T >.

inlineprotectedvirtual 
Computes the next time at which this System must perform a discrete action.
Override this method if your System has any discrete actions which must interrupt the continuous simulation. This method is called only from the public nonvirtual CalcNextUpdateTime() which will already have errorchecked the parameters so you don't have to. You may assume that context
has already been validated and events
pointer is not null.
The default implementation returns with the next sample time being Infinity and no events added to events
.
Reimplemented in Diagram< T >, Diagram< double >, LeafSystem< T >, LeafSystem< double >, and LcmSubscriberSystem.

inlineprotectedvirtual 
Override this method to return the rate at which mechanical energy is being generated (positive) or dissipated (negative) other than by conversion between potential and kinetic energy (in the given Context).
Integrating this quantity yields work W, and the total energy E=PE+KEW
should be conserved by any physicallycorrect model, to within integration accuracy of W. Power is in watts (J/s). (Watts are abbreviated W but not to be confused with work!) This method is meaningful only for physical systems; others return zero.
By default, returns zero. Continuous, physical systems should override. You may assume that context
has already been validated before it is passed to you here.
Reimplemented in RigidBodyPlant< T >, RigidBodyPlant< double >, and SpringMassSystem< T >.

inlineprotectedvirtual 
Override this method for physical systems to calculate the potential energy currently stored in the configuration provided in the given Context.
The default implementation returns 0 which is correct for nonphysical systems. You may assume that context
has already been validated before it is passed to you here.
Reimplemented in RigidBodyPlant< T >, RigidBodyPlant< double >, and SpringMassSystem< T >.

inlineprotectedvirtual 
Override this if you have any continuous state variables xc
in your concrete System to calculate their time derivatives.
The derivatives
vector will correspond elementwise with the state vector Context.state.continuous_state.get_state(). Thus, if the state in the Context has secondorder structure xc=[q,v,z]
, that same structure applies to the derivatives.
This method is called only from the public nonvirtual CalcTimeDerivatives() which will already have errorchecked the parameters so you don't have to. In particular, implementations may assume that the given Context is valid for this System; that the derivatives
pointer is nonnull, and that the referenced object has the same constituent structure as was produced by AllocateTimeDerivatives().
The default implementation does nothing if the derivatives
vector is size zero and aborts otherwise.
Reimplemented in Diagram< T >, Diagram< double >, RigidBodyPlant< T >, RigidBodyPlant< double >, SpringMassSystem< T >, PidController< T >, VectorSystem< T >, VectorSystem< double >, SpringMassDamperSystem< T >, StiffDoubleMassSpringSystem< T >, TimeVaryingAffineSystem< T >, DiscontinuousSpringMassDamperSystem< T >, and RobertsonSystem< T >.

inlineprotectedvirtual 
Computes the change in velocity from applying the given constraint forces to the system at the given context.
Derived classes can override this function, which is called by CalcVelocityChangeFromConstraintImpulses().

inlineprotectedvirtual 
Evaluates the constraint equations for the system at the generalized coordinates and generalized velocity specified by the context.
The context allows the set of constraints to be dependent upon the current system state (as might be the case with a piecewise differential algebraic equation). The default implementation of this function returns a zerodimensional vector. Derived classes can override this function, which is called by EvalConstraintEquations().

inlineprotectedvirtual 
Computes the time derivative of each constraint equation, evaluated at the generalized coordinates and generalized velocity specified by the context.
The context allows the set of constraints to be dependent upon the current system state (as might be the case with a piecewise differential algebraic equation). The default implementation of this function returns a zerodimensional vector. Derived classes can override this function, which is called by EvalConstraintEquationsDot().

protectedpure virtual 
Derived classes will implement this method to evaluate a witness function at the given context.
Implemented in Diagram< T >, Diagram< double >, LeafSystem< T >, and LeafSystem< double >.

inlineprotectedvirtual 
Implement this method to return any events to be handled before the simulator integrates the system's continuous state at each time step.
events
is cleared in the public nonvirtual GetPerStepEvents() before that method calls this function. An overriding implementation of this method should not clear events
, and only append to it. You may assume that context
has already been validated and that events
is not null. events
can be changed freely by the overriding implementation.
The default implementation returns without changing events
.

inlineprotectedvirtual 
Derived classes can override this method to provide witness functions active at the beginning of a continuous time interval.
The default implementation does nothing. On entry to this function, the context will have already been validated and the vector of witness functions will have been validated to be both empty and nonnull.
Reimplemented in Diagram< T >, Diagram< double >, and StatelessSystem< T >.

inlineprotectedvirtual 
Provides the substantive implementation of MapQDotToVelocity().
The default implementation uses the identity mapping, and correctly does nothing if the System does not have secondorder state variables. It throws std::runtime_error if the generalized_velocity
and qdot
are not the same size, but that is not enough to guarantee that the default implementation is adequate. Child classes must override this function if qdot != v (even if they are the same size). This occurs, for example, if a joint uses rollpitchyaw rotation angles for orientation but angular velocity for rotational rate rather than rotation angle derivatives.
If you implement this method you are required to use no more than O(nq)
time where nq
is the size of qdot
, so that the System can meet the performance guarantee made for the public interface, and you must also implement DoMapVelocityToQDot(). Implementations may assume that qdot
has already been validated to be the same size as q
in the given Context, and that generalized_velocity
is nonnull.
Reimplemented in Diagram< T >, Diagram< double >, RigidBodyPlant< T >, and RigidBodyPlant< double >.

inlineprotectedvirtual 
Provides the substantive implementation of MapVelocityToQDot().
The default implementation uses the identity mapping, and correctly does nothing if the System does not have secondorder state variables. It throws std::runtime_error if the generalized_velocity
(v
) and qdot
are not the same size, but that is not enough to guarantee that the default implementation is adequate. Child classes must override this function if qdot != v
(even if they are the same size). This occurs, for example, if a joint uses rollpitchyaw rotation angles for orientation but angular velocity for rotational rate rather than rotation angle derivatives.
If you implement this method you are required to use no more than O(nq)
time where nq
is the size of qdot
, so that the System can meet the performance guarantee made for the public interface, and you must also implement DoMapQDotToVelocity(). Implementations may assume that generalized_velocity
has already been validated to be the same size as v
in the given Context, and that qdot
is nonnull.
Reimplemented in Diagram< T >, Diagram< double >, RigidBodyPlant< T >, and RigidBodyPlant< double >.

inlineprotectedvirtual 
NVI implementation of ToAutoDiffXdMaybe.
Reimplemented in Diagram< T >, Diagram< double >, LeafSystem< T >, and LeafSystem< double >.

inlineprotectedvirtual 
NVI implementation of ToSymbolicMaybe.
Reimplemented in Diagram< T >, Diagram< double >, LeafSystem< T >, and LeafSystem< double >.

inline 
Causes the abstractvalued input port with the given port_index
to become uptodate, delegating to our parent Diagram if necessary.
Returns the port's abstract value pointer, or nullptr if the port is not connected.

inline 
Returns a reference to the cached value of the conservative power.
If necessary the cache will be updated first using CalcConservativePower().

inline 
Evaluates the constraint equations for the system at the generalized coordinates and generalized velocity specified by the context.
The context allows the set of constraints to be dependent upon the current system state (as might be the case with a system modeled using piecewise differential algebraic equations).

inline 
Computes the time derivative of each constraint equation, evaluated at the generalized coordinates and generalized velocity specified by the context.
The context allows the set of constraints to be dependent upon the current system state (as might be the case with a system modeled using piecewise differential algebraic equations).

inline 
Causes the vectorvalued input port with the given port_index
to become uptodate, delegating to our parent Diagram if necessary.
Returns the port's value as an Eigen expression.
Causes an InputPortValue in the context
to become uptodate, delegating to the parent Diagram if necessary.
This is a framework implementation detail. User code should never call it.
Causes the abstractvalued input port with the given port_index
to become uptodate, delegating to our parent Diagram if necessary.
Returns the port's abstract value, or nullptr if the port is not connected.
V  The type of data expected. 

inline 
Returns a reference to the cached value of the nonconservative power.
If necessary the cache will be updated first using CalcNonConservativePower().

inline 
Evaluates a witness function at the given context.
Causes the vectorvalued input port with the given port_index
to become uptodate, delegating to our parent Diagram if necessary.
Returns the port's value, or nullptr if the port is not connected.
Throws std::bad_cast if the port is not vectorvalued. Returns nullptr if the port is vector valued, but not of type Vec. Aborts if the port does not exist.
Vec  The template type of the input vector, which must be a subclass of BasicVector. 

inline 
Fixes all of the input ports in target_context
to their current values in other_context
, as evaluated by other_system
.
Throws an exception unless other_context
and target_context
both have the same shape as this System, and the other_system
. Ignores disconnected inputs.

inline 
Returns the constraint at index constraint_index
.
std::out_of_range  for an invalid constraint_index. 

inlineprotected 

inlineprotected 

inlineprotected 

inline 
Returns the descriptor of the input port at index port_index
.

inline 
Returns the name last supplied to set_name(), or empty if set_name() was never called.
Systems created through transmogrification have by default an identical name to the system they were created from.
Gets the number of constraint equations for this system using the given context (useful in case the number of constraints is dependent upon the current state (as might be the case with a system modeled using piecewise differential algebraic equations).

inline 
Returns the number of constraints specified for the system.

inline 
Returns the number of input ports of the system.

inline 
Returns the number of output ports of the system.

inline 
Returns the total dimension of all of the input ports (as if they were muxed).

inline 
Returns the total dimension of all of the output ports (as if they were muxed).

inline 
Returns the output port at index port_index
.

inline 
(Advanced) Returns the SystemScalarConverter for this object.
This is an expertlevel API intended for framework authors. Most users should prefer the convenience helpers such as System::ToAutoDiffXd.
Reports all direct feedthroughs from input ports to output ports.
For a system with m input ports: I = i₀, i₁, ..., iₘ₋₁
, and n output ports, O = o₀, o₁, ..., oₙ₋₁
, the return map will contain pairs (u, v) such that
Implemented in Diagram< T >, Diagram< double >, LeafSystem< T >, and LeafSystem< double >.

inlinevirtual 
Appends a Graphviz fragment to the dot
stream.
The fragment must be valid Graphviz when wrapped in a digraph
or subgraph
stanza. Does nothing by default.
Reimplemented in Diagram< T >, Diagram< double >, LeafSystem< T >, LeafSystem< double >, and PidController< T >.

inline 
Returns an opaque integer that uniquely identifies this system in the Graphviz output.

inlinevirtual 
Appends a fragment to the dot
stream identifying the graphviz node representing port
.
Does nothing by default.
Reimplemented in Diagram< T >, Diagram< double >, LeafSystem< T >, and LeafSystem< double >.

inlinevirtual 
Appends a fragment to the dot
stream identifying the graphviz node representing port
.
Does nothing by default.
Reimplemented in Diagram< T >, Diagram< double >, LeafSystem< T >, and LeafSystem< double >.

inline 
Returns a Graphviz string describing this System.
To render the string, use the Graphviz tool, dot
. http://www.graphviz.org/Documentation/dotguide.pdf

inline 
Returns a name for this System based on a stringification of its type name and memory address.
This is intended for use in diagnostic output and should not be used for behavioral logic, because the stringification of the type name may produce differing results across platforms and because the address can vary from run to run.

inlineprotected 
Returns a mutable Eigen expression for a vector valued output port with index port_index
in this system.
All input ports that directly depend on this output port will be notified that upstream data has changed, and may invalidate cache entries as a result.

inline 
Writes the full path of this System in the tree of Systems to output
.
The path has the form (::ancestor_system_name)*::this_system_name.

inline 

inline 
This method is called by Simulator::Initialize() to gather all update and publish events that are to be handled in StepTo() at the point before Simulator integrates continuous state.
It is assumed that these events remain constant throughout the simulation. The "step" here refers to the major time step taken by the Simulator. During every simulation step, the simulator will merge events
with the other CompositeEventCollection instances generated by other types of event triggering mechanism (e.g., CalcNextUpdateTime()), and the merged CompositeEventCollection objects will be passed to the appropriate handlers before Simulator integrates the continuous state.
events
cannot be null. events
will be cleared on entry.

inline 
Returns a string suitable for identifying this particular System in error messages, when it is a subsystem of a larger Diagram.
This method captures humanreadable subsystem identification best practice; the specifics of that are likely to change over time. However it will always be formatted like "System xxx" or "adjective System xxx" so that the remainder of the error message will continue to make sense. Currently it returns "system_type_name System subsystem_pathname".

inline 
Gets the witness functions active at the beginning of a continuous time interval.
DoGetWitnessFunctions() does the actual work.
context  a valid context for the System (aborts if not true).  
[out]  w  a valid pointer to an empty vector that will store pointers to the witness functions active at the beginning of the continuous time interval. The method aborts if witnesses is null or nonempty. 

inline 
Returns true
if any of the inputs to the system might be directly fed through to any of its outputs and false
otherwise.
Returns true if there might be directfeedthrough from any input port to the given output_port
, and false otherwise.
Returns true if there might be directfeedthrough from the given input_port
to the given output_port
, and false otherwise.

inline 
Transforms the time derivative qdot
of the generalized configuration q
to generalized velocities v
.
v
and qdot
are related linearly by qdot = N(q) * v
, where N
is a block diagonal matrix. For example, in a multibody system there will be one block of N
per tree joint. Although N
is not necessarily square, its left pseudoinverse N+
can be used to invert that relationship without residual error, provided that qdot
is in the range space of N
(that is, if it could have been produced as qdot=N*v
for some v
). Using the configuration q
from the given Context this method calculates v = N+ * qdot
(where N+=N+(q)
) for a given qdot
. This computation requires only O(nq)
time where nq
is the size of qdot
. Note that this method does not take qdot
from the Context.
See the alternate signature if you already have qdot
in an Eigen VectorX object; this signature will copy the VectorBase into an Eigen object before performing the computation.

inline 
Transforms the given time derivative qdot
of generalized configuration q
to generalized velocity v
.
This signature takes qdot
as an Eigen VectorX object for faster speed. See the other signature of MapQDotToVelocity() for additional information.

inline 
Transforms a given generalized velocity v
to the time derivative qdot
of the generalized configuration q
taken from the supplied Context.
v
and qdot
are related linearly by qdot = N(q) * v
, where N
is a block diagonal matrix. For example, in a multibody system there will be one block of N
per tree joint. This computation requires only O(nq)
time where nq
is the size of qdot
. Note that v
is not taken from the Context; it is given as an argument here.
See the alternate signature if you already have the generalized velocity in an Eigen VectorX object; this signature will copy the VectorBase into an Eigen object before performing the computation.

inline 
Transforms the given generalized velocity to the time derivative of generalized configuration.
See the other signature of MapVelocityToQDot() for more information.

inline 
This method is the public entry point for dispatching all publish event handlers.
It checks the validity of context
, and directly calls DispatchPublishHandler. events
is a homogeneous collection of publish events, which is typically the publish portion of the heterogeneous event collection generated by CalcNextUpdateTime or GetPerStepEvents.

inline 
Forces a publish on the system, given a context
.
The publish event will have a trigger type of kForced, with no additional data, attribute or custom callback. The Simulator can be configured to call this in Simulator::Initialize() and at the start of each continuous integration step. See the Simulator API for more details.

inlineprotected 

inlineprotected 

inlineprotected 

inline 
Sets the name of the system.
It is recommended that the name not include the character ':', since the path delimiter is "::". When creating a Diagram, names of sibling subsystems should be unique.

inline 
Declares that parent
is the immediately enclosing Diagram.
The enclosing Diagram is needed to evaluate inputs recursively. Aborts if the parent has already been set to something else.
This is a dangerous implementation detail. Conceptually, a System ought to be completely ignorant of its parent Diagram. However, we need this pointer so that we can cause our inputs to be evaluated. See https://github.com/RobotLocomotion/drake/pull/3455.

pure virtual 
Implemented in Diagram< T >, Diagram< double >, LeafSystem< T >, and LeafSystem< double >.

pure virtual 
Assigns default values to all elements of the state.
Overrides must not change the number of state variables.
Implemented in Diagram< T >, Diagram< double >, RigidBodyPlant< T >, RigidBodyPlant< double >, LcmSubscriberSystem, LeafSystem< T >, LeafSystem< double >, StiffDoubleMassSpringSystem< T >, RobotPlanInterpolator, and PickAndPlaceStateMachineSystem.

inline 
Creates a deep copy of this System, transmogrified to use the autodiff scalar type, with a dynamicsized vector of partial derivatives.
The result is never nullptr.
exception  if this System does not support autodiff 
See System Scalar Conversion for detailed background and examples related to scalartype conversion support.

inlinestatic 
Creates a deep copy of from
, transmogrified to use the autodiff scalar type, with a dynamicsized vector of partial derivatives.
The result is never nullptr.
exception  if from does not support autodiff 
Usage:
S  The specific System type to accept and return. 
See System Scalar Conversion for detailed background and examples related to scalartype conversion support.

inline 
Creates a deep copy of this system exactly like ToAutoDiffXd(), but returns nullptr if this System does not support autodiff, instead of throwing an exception.

inline 
Creates a deep copy of this System, transmogrified to use the symbolic scalar type.
The result is never nullptr.
exception  if this System does not support symbolic 
See System Scalar Conversion for detailed background and examples related to scalartype conversion support.

inlinestatic 
Creates a deep copy of from
, transmogrified to use the symbolic scalar type.
The result is never nullptr.
exception  if this System does not support symbolic 
Usage:
S  The specific System pointer type to return. 
See System Scalar Conversion for detailed background and examples related to scalartype conversion support.

inline 
Creates a deep copy of this system exactly like ToSymbolic(), but returns nullptr if this System does not support symbolic, instead of throwing an exception.